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The evolution of vacuum science which started in the 17th Century, has mirrored many other scientific achievements, including the the development of the Gas Laws and the discovery of the electron. Nevertheless, the world of vacuums still continues to excite and galvanise engineers and scientists. Indeed, ground breaking developments continue to push the boundaries of this fascinating subject.
Vacuum Physics - Basic Terms
What is the unit of Vacuum Pressure?Below is an overview of the major pressure units and conversion of pressure units:
It is common in vacuum science to sub-divide pressure ranges into five individual regimes:
Rough (or Low) vacuum (R): Atmospheric to 1 mbar
Medium (or Fine) vacuum (MV): 1 to 10–3 mbar
High vacuum (HV): 10–3 to 10–7 mbar
Ultra-high vacuum (UHV): 10–7 to 10–12 mbar
Extreme High Vacuum (XHV): greater than 10-12 mbar.
These divisions are somewhat arbitrary, with various engineering disciplines using their own definitions, ie chemists frequently refer to their spectrum of greatest interest (100 to 1 mbar), as an “intermediate vacuum”, whilst some engineers may refer to a vacuum as “low pressure” or “negative pressure”.